Gynecology as medical biological sicence studies structure, functions and diseases of female reproductive system, outside the period of pregnancy, birth and breastfeeding.
Main goal of gynecology is to find and apply more and more successful methods of maintenance and improvement of reproductive health of females. Another main goal of gynecology is to reveal and remove causes of infertility in women.
Each year the number of women with various gynecological diseases increases, whereas the age limit decreases. Prophylaxis is of essential significance for early diagnostics and more effective treatment of different gynecological diseases. All age groups of women, who have sex, are subject to routine gynecological examinations at least once a year and preferrably every 6 months .
Most of women suffer from menstrual pain. Young women most often suffer from menstrual pain. Menstrual pain is the most common gynecological symptom in these women. Menstrual pain appears in the period of youth after young women begin to have menstruation.
Menstrual pain is with different intensity, as the most intensive pain appears in the beginnign of menstruation. This pain decreases gradually during the next 2 to 3 days. Normal everyday activity of young women, such as going to school, university or work, can be negatively affected by the appearance of menstrual pain.
Causes of menstrual pain
Prostaglandins represent substances in female organism, which cause menstrual pain. These substances are released in the uterus of the woman during menstruation. Levels of prostaglandins in some women are higher, than in others. The probability women with higher levels of prostaglandins to suffer from menstrual pain is higher. In menstrual pain prostaglandins contribute to contraction of the muscles of the uterus, which leads to sensation of spasms (menstrual spasms).
Menstrual pain is most intensive and with highest frequency in the beginning of menstruation in women, when also the level of prostaglandins is highest. Menstrual pain disappears after a day or two days, when also the level of prostaglandins decreases.
Types of menstrual pain
Menstrual pain is of two types:
This is menstrual pain, which appears in most women during menstrual cycle. This menstrual pain is felt one / two years before menstruation and its intensity decreases with advance of age of the specific woman.
This menstrual pain is felt and is caused, due to problems (e.g. intrauterine adhesions or fibromas)
of the reproductive system in women. About 10% of women with menstrual pain suffer from secondary dysmenorrhea. Secondary dysmenorrhea is characterized by trend of appearance in advance in age, whereas it can intensify with further advance in age. This menstrual pain can appear before menstruation, can continue during the whole period of menstruation and even can contine after cessation of menstruation.